stats online users

What’s the Greatest Swimming Relay Begin Method? – Swimming Science

The relay change is a important element of relays. Subjectively, you may watch an incredible relay change and watch the superior relay begin make a big enchancment over their rivals. But, the perfect swimming relay begin approach has garnered minimal analysis.

Like most elements of swimming, analysis is commonly behind the elite swimmers. Coaches and swimmers are inventive and may carry out day by day technical adjustments to seek out the quickest technique for a method, then determine why later. Researchers must have a concept, then take a look at the speculation. Due to this fact, the under analysis research won’t analyze the Step-Over swimming relay begin approach (see under, after they step over the wedge of the Omega OSB11).

As you may see, this model of relay change includes extra athleticism and expertise. Nonetheless, it ought to have the swimmer enter with extra horizontal velocity, sadly, that is new model was not assessed within the under research.

Analysis on Swimming Relay Begin Method

Much like swimming begin, many within the swimming neighborhood affiliate a decrease changeover time with a profitable swimming relay begin.

Saavedra et al. (2014) researched the connection between changeover instances and the corresponding relay race instances for 13 years from worldwide competitions (sure, 13 years) and concluded that changeover time was a figuring out issue for the general race efficiency. Nonetheless, Fischer et al. (2017) discovered that:

maximizing horizontal peak power fairly than minimizing changeover time improved relay begin efficiency

Fischer et al., 2019

Historical past of Swimming Relay Begin Method

Over time, block maneuvers for swimming relay begin approach has modified dramatically.

  • Parallel begin with round arm swing
  • Monitor begin
  • Single-step begin
  • Double-step begin
  • Step over begin [as depicted above, if someone has a name for this, please put in comments]

Not all of those swimming relay begin methods have been researched, however of the analysis beforehand finished, there have been no important variations between relay beginning types.

Nonetheless, the next horizontal take-off velocity was detected within the double step approach by McLean et al. (2000). In distinction, in a research carried out by Takeda et al. (2010), no important variations have been discovered throughout completely different swimming relay begin methods in horizontal take-off velocity or in take-off angle.

At this level, it stays unclear (from the present physique of literature) in a number of methods which swimming relay begin approach aggressive swimmers ought to make use of throughout relay races.

3 Flaws with Previous Relay Begin Analysis

  1. Lack of analysis: Essentially the most regarded analysis on swimming relay begin approach doesn’t embody (Gambrel et al., 1991; McLean et al., 2000; Takeda et al., 2010) date on the Omega OSB11 beginning block, which was launched in 2008 and which supplies additional benefits for swimmers.
  2. Lack of Key Parameters: There may be nonetheless debate about what are the important thing parameters to analysis for the relay begin, making it unclear if earlier analysis has the important thing parameters (Fischer & Kibele, 2016; Tor et al., 2015).
  3. Not Measuring Underwater Section: No earlier analysis has examined the impact of the completely different relay begin methods on the underwater part, arguably crucial part.

Parallel, Separated, or One-Step…

A current research (Qiu 2020) in contrast three completely different swimming relay begin methods in “eleven worldwide youth swimmers (5 males and 6 females) 16.0 ± 1.29 yrs, top 1.67 ± 0.05 m, physique mass 56.4 ± 6.88 kg, and FINA factors 762 ± 31.03, have been recruited as members within the present research. All swimmers have been nationwide champions, belonged to the Nationwide Coaching Centre Squad and eight of them participated within the 2016 and 2017 European Junior Swimming Championships.”

The three types used have been:

  1. Parallel ft begin
  2. Separated ft begin
  3. One-step begin

After a standardized warm-up, the athletes carried out a dash 25-m for every of those swimming relay begin methods in a random order.

So, Which Swimming Relay Begin Method is Greatest?

Like most objects in analysis, there was no statistically important variations in time to 5-, 10-, 15-m or horizontal take-off velocity, however

an noticed pattern for the one-step begin to be superior to the non-step methods.

Qiu et. al., 2020

Regardless of the above findings, right here have been the variations 6 important findings:

  1. When performing a one-step approach begin, swimmers spent an extended preparation time with smaller time contribution of changeover time in comparison with the parallel ft approach. Changeover instances diversified between 0.20 seconds and 0.30 seconds – in keeping with earlier knowledge by Fischer et al. (2019) throughout worldwide swimming competitions – being shorter within the one-step begin in comparison with the parallel ft approach. If the one-step approach decreased changeover time, the step-over approach probably decreases this time even extra and could also be a cause for disqualifications.
  2. As we’d count on, the swimmers’ middle of mass offered nearer distance to the beginning wall and decrease top within the preliminary place when using the parallel ft approach than the opposite methods.
  3. Better take-off distance was noticed within the parallel versus the separated ft approach.
  4. Swimmers confirmed a higher take off top within the separated ft approach in comparison with the remaining methods.
  5. For the one-step approach, the middle of mass of the preliminary place was 0.1 m additional again than within the different methods, which is in keeping with the longer preparation instances employed by swimmers.
  6. One final word the writer’s of this research said:
    1. “Lastly, however not much less importantly, instances to five m, 10 m and 15 m – barely slower than earlier relay begin instances by male collegiate swimmers (McLean et al., 2000) – didn’t present statistical results between completely different relay begin methods, regardless of an inclination the place swimmers using the one-step approach might get hold of shorter instances than in no-step begin methods. These outcomes are in keeping with the absence of statistical variations noticed within the take-off velocities, and counsel that variations between relay begin methods (when equally skilled) appear to rely extra on the swimmers’ posture than on the middle of mass linear kinematics.”

Swimming Relay Begin Method Conclusion

Primarily based off the outcomes of this research, there isn’t a important distinction in swimming time or horizontal velocity in relay begin methods. Nonetheless, there’s a pattern in direction of the step relay begin and former knowledge by McLean et al. (2000) which indicated the relay step-up didn’t lead to a considerably quicker 10 m begin instances, and that the variations between no-step and step begins was near 0.09 seconds.

Clearly, extra analysis is required and data relating to the popular model of a relay begin, however total it appears the step-up model ends in higher horizontal velocity and quicker instances, it simply isn’t important. That is in alignment with knowledgeable statement, as most elite swimmers used this model of relay begin.


  1. Fischer, S. (2017). Evaluating relay begins in swimming. In S. Fischer &
    A. Kibele (Eds.), Modern swim begin analysis: Convention guide:
    Younger specialists’ workshop on swim begin analysis 2015 (pp. 50–58).
    Meyer & Meyer Sport.
  2. Fischer, S., Braun, C., & Kibele, A. (2017). Studying relay begin methods in
    swimming: What suggestions is greatest? European Journal of Sport Science, 17
    (3), 257–263.
  3. Fischer, S., Braun, C., & Kibele, A. (2019). Jason Lezak once more and again-linear
    combined modelling evaluation of change–over instances in relay swimming races.
    Journal of Sports activities Sciences, 37(14), 1–8.
  4. Fischer, S., & Kibele, A. (2016). The biomechanical construction of swim begin
    efficiency. Sports activities Biomechanics, 15(4), 397–408.
  5. Gambrel, D. W., Blanke, D., Thigpen, Ok., & Mellion, M. B. (1991).
    A biomechanical comparability of two relay begins in swimming. Journal
    of Swimming Analysis, 7(2), 5–9.
  6. McLean, S. P., Holthe, M. J., Vint, P. F., Beckett, Ok. D., & Hinrichs, R. N. (2000). Addition of an strategy to a swimming relay begin. Journal of Utilized Biomechanics, 16(4), 342–355.
  7. Qiu X, Veiga S, Calvo AL, Kibele A, Navarro E. A Kinematics Comparability of Completely different Swimming Relay Begin Strategies. J Sports activities Sci. 2020 Dec 18:1-9. doi: 10.1080/02640414.2020.1860296. On-line forward of print.
  8. Saavedra, J. M., García-Hermoso, A., Escalante, Y., Dominguez, A. M.,
    Arellano, R., & Navarro, F. (2014). Relationship between change block
    time in swim begins and ultimate efficiency in relay races in worldwide
    championships. Journal of Sports activities Sciences, 32(19), 1783–1789. https://
  9. Takeda, T., Sakai, S., Takagi, H., Okuno, Ok., & Tsubakimoto, S. (2017). Contribution of hand and foot power to take-off velocity for the kick-start in aggressive swimming. Journal of Sports activities Sciences, 35(6), 565–571. 1080/02640414.2016.1180417
  10. Takeda, T., Takagi, H., & Tsubakimoto, S. (2010). Comparability amongst three kinds of relay begins in aggressive swimming [Paper presentation]. The XIth Worldwide Symposium for Biomechanics and Medication in Swimming, Oslo, Norway.
  11. Takeda, T., Takagi, H., & Tsubakimoto, S. (2012). Impact of inclination and
    place of latest swimming beginning block’s again plate on track-start
    efficiency. Sports activities Biomechanics, 11(3), 370–381.
  12. Tor, E., Pease, D., & Ball, Ok. (2014). Traits of an elite swimming begin [Paper presentation]. The Biomechanics and Medication in Swimming
    Convention 2014, Canberra, Australia.
  13. Tor, E., Pease, D. L., & Ball, Ok. A. (2015). Key parameters of the swimming begin and their relationship to begin efficiency. Journal of Sports activities Sciences, 33 (13), 1313–1321. ttps://
  14. Veiga, S., Cala, A., Frutos, P. G., & Navarro, E. (2014). Comparability of begins and turns of nationwide and regional degree swimmers by individualized distance measurements. Sports activities Biomechanics, 13(3), 285–295. 1080/14763141.2014.910265
  15. Veiga, S., & Roig, A. (2017). Impact of the beginning and turning performances on the following swimming parameters of elite swimmers. Sports activities Biomechanics, 16(1), 34–44. 1179782
  16. Veiga, S., Roig, A., & Gómez-Ruano, M. A. (2016). Do quicker swimmers spend longer underwater than slower swimmers at World Championships? European Journal of Sport Science, 16(8), 919–926. 1080/17461391.2016.1153727